What is Prostate Cancer?

Prostate cancer is a malignant tumor of the prostate gland. There are various stages of prostate cancer. Your treatment depends on the specific characteristics of the tumor and the experience of your medical team.

Talk to your doctor about your individual situation.

Prostate cancer usually develops slowly and does not lead to significant symptoms. Rapidly progressing prostate cancer is rare.

The risk of developing prostate cancer increases with age.

The mean age at diagnosis for prostate cancer is 69 years. Improvements in diagnostic tools and increased life expectancy increase the number of prostate cancer diagnosis.

Prostate cancer is the most common cancer seen in elderly men in Europe. The life expectancy of patients with prostate cancer is relatively long and this period continues to increase.

Phases of the Disease

Prostate cancer is a disease with different stages. If the tumor is confined to the prostate and there is no spread, it is called localized prostate cancer.

In locally advanced prostate cancer, the tumor tissue is spread to tissues such as seminal vesicles, bladder neck or surrounding lymph nodes. If there is tumor spread to the distant lymph nodes or other organs, this is referred to as metastatic disease.

Prostate Cancer Risk Factors

There are several known risk factors for prostate cancer, the most important of which is age. Prostate cancer is very rare under 40 years of age and is mostly developed in men over 65 years of age. Family history can also increase risk. Prostate cancer rate in family history is high in African males and less in Asian males. The exact cause is unknown. More meat and dairy products are said to increase the risk of cancer, but more research is needed.

The Role of Hormones in Prostate Cancer Cell Growth

When cells begin to grow faster than normal, the tumor develops. The growth of the prostate cancer cell depends on the male hormones known as androgens. The most important androgen is testosterone and is produced mostly in testicles.


Prostate cancer can be early diagnosed and treatable disease. There are different treatment options depending on the stage and characteristics of the disease. Active monitoring, surgical removal of the entire prostate or radiation therapy (radiotherapy) can be performed in the early stages. Hormone therapy or chemotherapy can be seen in other stages. Early treatment in high-risk patients is life-saving.


As with all cancers, healthy eating habits can reduce the risk of prostate cancer. If you have prostate cancer among your first-degree relatives, you are also at risk. From the age of 40, regularly visit your urology physician!