What are Testes and Related Diseases?

The testis is the organ where the male hormone testosterone and  the sperm needed for reproduction are produced. Testes are placed in the testicle bag (scrotum) in two pieces. There can be a disease related to this organ.

Hydrocele: This is a state of fluid accumulation between the leaves surrounding testis. It usually manifests itself in painless swelling in the scrotum.
Epididymal cyst: It is the collection of fluid in a pouch in tubes that transfer sperm from the testicles.
Spermatocele: It is the case where the sperm is found in a pouch on a separated from the testis and epididymis.
Torsion (Rotation of the testes): This is a condition that occurs as a result of the rotation of the cord structure extending from the testicles to the abdomen and requires urgent intervention.
Epididymoorchitis: Inflammatory disease of the epididymis and / or testis.
Testicular tumor: Tumor disease of the testis.

What kind of findings does it give?

Hydrocele is usually manifested by the swell growing over time. The epididymal cyst or spermatocele appear as a separate swelling in the scrotum. Torsion is a pain in the scrotum. Although the epididymoorchitis is similar, there may be signs of infection in that area. The testicular tumor is usually a painless, hard mass in the testes.

How is it diagnosed?

The diagnosis is usually made by examination during the patient’s application to the doctor. In case of doubt, other imaging methods, especially ultrasonography, may be useful.

How is it treated?

Except for epididymoorchitis, there is no place for medication. In the case of epididymoorchitis, antibiotics, painkillers and rest are recommended. In the case of the aforementioned complaints, it is a decision of your doctor to decide whether a surgical intervention is required.

What Causes Problems If Untreated?

The necessity to intervene in hydrocele, epididymis cyst and spermatocele may often be cosmetic causes and rarely pain. The loss of testicular functions may be only in very severe cases. Torsion is a condition that can result in the loss of the testis if it is delayed by urgent surgical intervention. Tumor is a life-threatening condition that requires surgery as soon as possible and then requires additional treatment.

What should be considered?

Although the diagnosis is often demonstrated by a self-examination, a urologist should be examined if there is any suspicion of an abnormal condition in the testes. It is especially important to distinguish between torsion and epididymoorchitis. If torsion is present, even the hours are important.